Press Release

Allogeneic Hematopoietic cell Transplantation Using Alemtuzumab in Asian Patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity

June 17, 2024


Alemtuzumab is used with reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), demonstrating efficacy and feasibility for patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) in Western countries; however, the clinical experience in Asian patients with IEI is limited. We retrospectively analyzed patients with IEI who underwent the first allogeneic HCT with alemtuzumab combined with RTC regimens in Japan. A total of 19 patients were included and followed up for a median of 18 months. The donors were haploidentical parents (n = 10), matched siblings (n = 2), and unrelated bone marrow donors (n = 7). Most patients received RTC regimens containing fludarabine and busulfan and were treated with 0.8 mg/kg alemtuzumab with intermediate timing. Eighteen patients survived and achieved stable engraftment, and no grade 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease was observed. Viral infections were observed in 11 patients (58%) and 6 of them presented symptomatic. The median CD4+ T cell count was low at 6 months (241/µL) but improved at 1 year (577/µL) after HCT. Whole blood cells continued to exhibit > 80% donor type in most cases; however, 3/10 patients exhibited poor donor chimerism only among T cells and also showed undetectable levels of T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TRECs) at 1 year post-HCT. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab; however, patients frequently developed viral infections and slow reconstitution or low donor chimerism in T cells, emphasizing the importance of monitoring viral status and T-cell-specific chimerism. (238 < 250 words)

Journal Article

JOURNAL: Journal of Clinical Immunology

TITLE: Allogeneic Hematopoietic cell Transplantation Using Alemtuzumab in Asian Patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity


Correspondence to

Hirokazu Kanegane, Professor

Department of Child Health and Development,
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences,
Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU)

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