Press Release

An international survey of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for X-linked agammaglobulinemia

July 24, 2023



X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inborn error of immunity caused by variants in Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK). XLA patients require lifelong immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). Only few XLA patients are indicated for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) because of severe complications. Accordingly, the published transplantation experience in XLA is minimal. We aimed to collect clinical data of XLA patients who received HCT in an international framework and to establish appropriate transplantation criteria and methods for XLA patients.


XLA patients were recruited through a questionnaire and a literature review. The data are on patient characteristics and transplantation methods and outcomes.


In this study, twenty-two XLA patients who underwent HCT were recruited. The indication for HCT was recurrent or life-threatening infection in sixteen patients, malignancy in three, and other factors in three. A myeloablative conditioning, reduced toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RT-MAC), and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) were selected in four, ten, and eight patients, respectively. Engraftment was achieved in 21 patients (95%). In all patients, 2-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 86% and 77%, respectively. In patients who received RT-MAC or RIC using treosulfan, busulfan, or melphalan, 2-year OS and EFS were 82% and 71%, respectively. Finally, twenty-one patients (95%) obtained complete or stable high-level mixed chimerism (50–95%), and the 1-year discontinuation rate of IgRT was 89%.


Based on the concept in which IgRT is the standard treatment for XLA, HCT may be an effective and safe alternative treatment option for XLA patients, and IgRT can be discontinued following transplantation. It is ideal to perform HCT in XLA patients for whom transplantation is indicated before they develop organ damage.

Journal Article

JOURNALJournal of Clinical Immunology

TITLE:An international survey of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for X-linked agammaglobulinemia


Correspondence to

Hirokazu Kanegane, Professor

Department of Child Health and Development, 
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences,
Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU)

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