Press Release

Regression of periventricular anastomosis after indirect revascularization in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease

September 22, 2023



The aim of this study was to evaluate whether indirect revascularization in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease leads to periventricular anastomosis (PVA) regression, which is markedly developed in moyamoya vessels and is regarded as a risk factor for hemorrhage.


Pediatric patients with moyamoya disease treated with indirect revascularization from 2011 to 2021 were included in this study. Magnetic resonance angiography and arterial spin labeling images acquired before and 1 year after surgery were assessed to obtain a visual scale of postoperative collateral artery formation, moyamoya vessels, PVA, and quantitative values of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The relationship between background information (age, sex, RNF213 p.R4810K variant status, and preoperative CBF) and postoperative collateral artery formation, as well as postoperative CBF improvement and regression of moyamoya vessels and PVA, was evaluated.


Of 89 hemispheres in 58 patients (34 females; mean [SD] patient age 8.0 [3.4] years), 74.2% showed good postoperative collateral artery formation and a significant increase in CBF (p < 0.001). Postoperative PVA showed significant regression (postoperative score 1.46 [1.06] vs 2.02 [1.69], p = 0.001), especially in those arising from choroidal arteries (postoperative score 0.28 [0.50] vs 0.72 [0.67], p < 0.001). Compared with hemispheres without good collateral artery formation, those with good collateral artery formation were more likely to show a higher increase in CBF (9.74 [12.44] ml/min/100 g vs −4.86 [9.68] ml/min/100 g, p < 0.001) and regression of PVA (54.5% [36/66] vs 30.4% [7/23], p = 0.015). Although not statistically significant, patients with postoperative PVA progression were younger than those with regression (6.75 [3.03] years vs 8.18 [3.17] years, p = 0.188), and patients with the RNF213 p.R4810K variant were more likely to show regression (28/57 [49.1%] hemispheres vs 5/13 [38.5%] hemispheres, p = 0.069).


Indirect revascularization in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease resulted in good collateral extracranial artery formation and an increase in CBF and PVA regression, especially of vessels arising from choroidal arteries. With good postoperative collateral artery development, patients were more likely to show improved CBF and regression of moyamoya vessels, including PVA. Whether postoperative PVA changes reduce future hemorrhage risk requires further investigation.


 ASL = arterial spin labeling;  CBF = cerebral blood flow;  EDAS = encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis;  ICA = internal carotid artery;  MCA = middle cerebral artery;  MRA = MR angiography;  MIP = maximum intensity projection;  PVA = periventricular anastomosis.

Journal Article

JOURNALJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

TITLE:Regression of periventricular anastomosis after indirect revascularization in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease


Correspondence to

Elizabeth Yi Zheng, BS
Fifth grade,
School of Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine,

Shoko Hara, Assistant Professor, MD, PhD
Department of Neurosurgery,
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science,
Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU)