Press Release

FLIP-based autophagy-detecting technique reveals closed autophagic compartments

January 12, 2023


Autophagy results in the degradation of cytosolic components via two major membrane deformations. First, the isolation membrane sequesters components from the cytosol and forms autophagosomes, by which open structures become closed compartments. Second, the outer membrane of the autophagosomes fuses with lysosomes to degrade the inner membrane and its contents. The efficiency of the latter degradation process, namely autophagic flux, can be easily evaluated using lysosomal inhibitors, whereas the dynamics of the former process is difficult to analyze because of the challenges in identifying closed compartments of autophagy (autophagosomes and autolysosomes). To resolve this problem, we here developed a method to detect closed autophagic compartments by applying the FLIP technique, and named it FLIP-based Autophagy Detection (FLAD). This technique visualizes closed autophagic compartments and enables differentiation of open autophagic structures and closed autophagic compartments in live cells. In addition, FLAD analysis detects not only starvation-induced canonical autophagy but also genotoxic stress-induced alternative autophagy. By the combinational use of FLAD and LC3, we were able to distinguish the structures of canonical autophagy from those of alternative autophagy in a single cell.

Journal Article

JOURNALScientific Reports

TITLE:FLIP-based autophagy-detecting technique reveals closed autophagic compartments


Correspondence to

  1. Shigeomi SHIMIZU, M.D., Ph.D., Professor

Department of Pathological Cell Biology,
Medical Research Institute,
Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU)

*Please change (at) in the e-mail addresses to @ when sending correspondence.