Time Spent Away from Bed to Maintain Swallowing Function in Older Adults
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the associations of time spent away from bed with whole-body muscle mass and swallowing function in older adults with low activities of daily living (ADL). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Tokyo Medical and Dental University and included adults over 65 years of age who underwent a medical intervention at their residence. Data regarding age, sex, body height and weight, activity status, medical history, time spent away from bed, and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) were collected. We calculated the body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, whole-body muscle mass, the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), and the trunk muscle mass index (TMI). According to the time spent away from bed, the subjects were grouped as follows: <4 but ≥0 h (S), <6 but ≥4 h (M), and ≥6 h (L). These variables were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the χ2 test, then differences among the three groups were examined. To adjust for confounding factors, we performed multiple regression analysis with ASMI and TMI as the dependent variables and ordinal logistic regression analysis with FOIS as the objective variable. Results: Ninety subjects (male: n = 42; female: n = 48; mean age = 82.9 ± 8.8 years, and groups S: n = 23; M: n = 30; L: n = 37) were analyzed. Group L had a significantly higher ASMI, TMI, and FOIS score than groups S and M, while group M had a significantly higher ASMI and FOIS score than group S. After adjusting for confounding factors, the significant explanatory factors for ASMI were sex, activity status, time spent away from bed, and TMI. The factors for TMI were activity status, time spent away from bed, ASMI, and FOIS. The factors for FOIS were time spent away from bed and TMI. Conclusion: Spending 4 or more hours away from the bed is related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass and FOIS, while spending 6 or more hours is related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass, trunk muscle mass, and FOIS in this population. These findings highlight factors that can prevent a decline in swallowing function in the daily life of older adults with low ADL who have difficulty performing exercises to preserve swallowing function.
Kazuharu Nakagawa, Associate Professor
Department of Dysphagia Rehabilitation,
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences,
Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU)
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