東京医科歯科大学大学院 医歯学総合研究科 医療経済学分野
医歯学総合研究棟(M&Dタワー) 6階南側


医歯学総合研究棟(U期棟) 6階
TEL 03-5803-5931

--- Intermediate Microeconomics for Health Care Economics ---
小林 航(非常勤講師)
第1回 需要と供給:需要曲線・供給曲線・市場均衡・価格弾力性
第2回 生産者理論1:利潤最大化問題・生産関数と費用関数・財供給と要素需要
第3回 生産者理論2:生産要素選択・費用最小化問題・生産可能性フロンティア
第4回 消費者理論1:効用関数と無差別曲線・予算制約・代替効果と所得効果
第5回 消費者理論2:効用最大化と支出最小化・補償需要・スルツキー分解
第6回 労働供給:労働と余暇・労働供給関数・留保賃金
第7回 貯蓄:消費と貯蓄・ライフサイクル仮説・流動性制約
第8回 一般均衡分析:パレート最適・競争均衡・厚生経済学の基本定理
第9回 部分均衡分析:消費者余剰・生産者余剰・パレート原理と補償原理
第10回 課税の厚生分析:課税の超過負担・税負担の転嫁・最適課税論
第11回 不完全競争:独占企業の行動・独占の厚生損失・自然独占と価格規制
第12回 外部性:外部性の厚生損失・ピグー的解決法・コースの定理
第13回 公共財:純粋公共財の性質・サミュエルソン条件・フリーライダー問題
第14回 不確実性:期待効用理論・保険の機能・保険と年金
第15回 ゲーム理論:ナッシュ均衡・クールノー競争・繰り返しゲーム
第16回 不完備情報:エージェンシー理論・モラルハザード・逆選択
Folland, S. et al. The Economics of Health and Health Care, Prentice Hall.
Mas-Colell, A. et al. Microeconomic Theory, Oxford University Press.
Varian, H. Intermediate Microeconomics, Norton.

Tokyo Medical and Dental University
Division of Public Health
Health Care Economics Program
Thursday 18:00-20:00
Professor : Koichi Kawabuchi
1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-8549 ,Japan
Tel +81-03-5803-5931
Fax +81-03-5803-5933
2005年度 Course Syllabus(コースシラバス)
This course uses the tools of microeconomics and empirical analysis to study health care delivery system with collaboration of donation program on health Care management which has started in Sep.2003. The principal goal is to become proficient in evaluating empirical analyses and in applying economics reasoning to health-related issues. In particular, the course focuses on how payment systems, government policies and industrial organization affect the incentives and environment for particular agents and institutions within and beyond the health sector.
And also the courses in heath care policy are designed to complement the conceptual framework provided by the business core. Their purposes is to prepare the graduate for high-level professional practice in the industry by emphasizing the application of principle from the business disciplines.

Class Preparation and Participation
The Course requirements include written exercises due in five of the 10 weeks of the semester, an oral presentation in a discussion group, attendance at and critique of at least one Workshop in Health Care Management, and a final examination. The written exercises are one to three-page responses to questions on reading and lecture material. The oral presentations, are ten to fifteen minutes on a subject in the course of particular interest to the student. The workshop critiques of three or four pages are based on presentations each week by faculty, staff, and Ph.D. candidates from the University as well as researchers from other universities and health organizations on their current work concerning the health status of the population and the organization and delivery of health care.
In most week, study questions will be provided to facilitate understanding of the course material. These will include technical problems which should be completed during the week and solutions will be reviewed the following week. Although these are not graded, they are extremely good practice for the examinations.
Student participation and discussion is expected. All students should come to each class prepared to discuss issues raised in the assigned readings or to explain their solutions to assigned problems to the best of their ability.

The commitment
This is an intermediate economics course at the graduate level. To successfully learn the material, students should be prepared to devote at least eight hours a week to the course, exclusive of class time.

Course grades will be calculated as follows:
Short essays and written exercises to be turned in before each class 35(7×5)%
Class Participation 5%
Oral presentation 20%
Workshop critique 10%
Final Examination Either July 3 or Dec 4 30%
Textbook and reading Packet
※ Reading packet: A reading packet with most of the other readings is available for the original in our office.

Downloadable Readings
Many of the readings are available free on the internet. Locations are marked below.
Please note:
Government Site
Organization sites
Downloads from JSTOR, NBER and some of the journal websites can only be obtained through a connection from NYU or another subscribing institution; they cannot be accessed from commercial internet service providers.
The New York Times website requires (free) registration for access.
The New England Journal of Medicine website requires log in.
Please note that this is a preliminary schedule. Updates will be announced in class.

第1回 5月19日
劉怡(Liu Yi)

第2回 6月16日
孟開(Meng Kai)
* Should We Be Worried About High Real Medical Spending Growth In The United States?: Health Affairs
* Improvement in maternal health literacy among pregnant women who did not complete compulsory education:policy implications for community care services:Health Policy
* China's evolving health care market:how doctors feel and what they think:Health Policy
* Evaluating the comparability of different grouping schemes for mortality and morbidity:Health Policy
* Association of hospital ownership with patient transfers to outpatient care under a prospective system in Taiwan:Health Policy
* Effects of Global Budgeting on the Distribution of Dentists and Use of Dental Care in Taiwan:Health Services Research
* National Lessons in Financing of Health Care:Cost Convergence between Public and For-Profit Hospitals under Prospective Payment and High Competition in Taiwan: Health Services Research

第3回 6月23日
* Medical savings accounts in a universal system:wishful thinking meets evidence:Health Policy
* Estimation of the impact of providing outpatients with information about SARS infection control on their infection of outpatient visit:Health Policy
* Rethinking the Cesarean Rate:How Pregnancy Complications May Affect Interhospital Comparisons:Medical Care
* Depression 20 Years of Progress:Medical Care
* Chronic Medical Illness,Depressin,and Use of Acute Medical Service Among Medicare Beneficiaries: Medical Care
* Older Patients with Serious Mental Illness:Sensitivity to Distance Barriers for Outpatient Care:Medical Care
* Escalating Health Care Spending:Is It Desirable Or Inevitable:Health Affairs

第4回 7月7日
* Validity of Procedure Codes in International Classification of Diseases,9th revision,Clinical Modification Administrative Data:Medical Care
* Choosing to Convert to Critical Access Hospital Status:Health Care Financing Review
* Computerized Knowledge Management in Diabetes Care:Medical Care
* The Role of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics in Promoting Access and Stimulating Innovation:Pharmacoeconomics
* The Effects of Pharmaceutical Consumption and Obesity on the Quality of Life in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Countries: Pharmacoeconomics
* Education in Pharmacoeconomics:An International Multidisciplinary View:Phamacoeconomics

第5回 7月14日
* Impacts of Informal Caregiver Availability on Long-term Care Expenditures in OECD Countries:Health Services Research
* The Disparity in Access to New Medication by Type of Health Insurance:Lessons From Germany:Medical Care
* Access to physician services:does suppulemental insurance matter? Evidence from France:Health Economics
* Teamwork Culture and Patient Satisfaction in Hospitals:Medical Care
* Association of hospital resource use with comorbidity status and patient age among hip fracture patients in Japan:Health Policy
* Challenges in Measuring Nursing Home and Home Health Quality:Lessons From the First National Healthcare Quality Report:Medical Care

第6回 7月21日
* Shifting the burden of health care finance:a case study of public-private partnership in Singapore:Health Policy
* Capacity in Thai Public Hospitals and the Production of Care for Poor and Nonpoor Patients: Health Services Research
* The private demand for an AIDS vaccine in Thailand:Health Policy
* Comparing alternative models:log vs Cox proportional hazard?:Health Economics
* Quality Improvement Efforts and Hospital Performance:Rate of Beta-Blocker Prescription After Acute Myocardial Infarction:Medical Care
* Hospital-Level Racial Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infaction Treatment and Outcomes:Medical Care

第7回 7月28日
* Hospital-Level Performance Improvement Beta-Blocker Use After Acute Myocardial Infarction:Medical Care
* Describing Chinese hospital activity with diagnosis related groups(DRGs):A case study in Chengdu:Health Policy
* An Economic Evaluation of Fluvastatin used for the Prevention of Cardiac Events Following Successful First Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the UK:Pharmacoeconomics
* Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis at basic health care facilities in rural Vietnam:a survey of knowledge and reported practices among health staff:Health Policy
Perceptions and experiences of health care seeking and access to TB care-a qualitative study in Rural Jiangsu Province,China:Health Policy
* Racial Inequities in the Timing of Breast Cancer Detection,Diagnosis,and Initiation of Treatment:Medical Care

第8回 9月1日
* Mortality After Cardiac Bypass Surgery:Prediction From Administrative Versus Clinical Data:Medical Care
* Mortality After Noncardiac Surgery:Prediction From Administrative Versus Clinical Data:Medical Care
* International differences in the impact of doctors on health:a multilevel analysis of OECD countries:Journal of Health Economics

* Are Damages Caps Regressive?:A Study Of Malpractice July Verdicts In California:Health Affairs
* National Health Insurance:Falling Expectations and the Safety Net:Medical care
* Recent Trends and Geographic Variation in the Safety Net:Medical care
* Racial,Ethnic,and Scocioeconomic Disparities in Estimates of AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators:Medical Care

第9回 9月8日
* Net Health Plan Savings From Reference Pricing for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Elderly British Columbia Residents:Medical Care
* The Health Effects of Restricting Prescription Medication Use Because of Cost:Medical Care
* The Economics of Follow-on Drug Research and Development:Pharmacoeconomics
* Clinical Management Strategies and Diabetes Quality:What Can We Learn from Observational Studies?:Medical Care
* The Influence of Physicians' Practice Management Strategies and Financial Arrangements on Quality of Care Among Patients With Diabetes:Medical Care
* The Role of Perceived Team Effectiveness in Improving Chronic Illness Care:Medical Care

第10 回 9月15日
* Trends in Nursing Home Expenses,1987 and 1996:Health Care Financing Review
* Access To Conventional Medical Care And The Use Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine:Health Affairs

* Is Case-Mix Adjustment Necessary for an Expanded Dialysis Bundle?: Health Care Financing Review
* Physician Process and Patient Outcome Measures for Diabetes Care:Relationships to Organizational Characteristics:Medical Care
* Why Do People Report Better Health by Phone Than by Mail?:Medical Care


Final Examination
Economics Record Examination

※Reference: A reading packet which was used in 2004's program
  * Cardiac procedure Use and Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute myocardial Infarction in the United States and Quebec, Canada, 1988 to 1994, Medical Care, Vol.41, No7,pp813-822.
* In-Hospital Mortality Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery in Veterans Health Administration and Private Sector Hospitals, Medical Care,Vol41,No.4,pp522-535.
* Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments-The case of stable angina pectoris, Health Policy, 67(2004)293-307).
* Reductions in Individual Work Productivity Associated with Type2 Diabetes Mellitus, Phamacoeconomics, 2003:21(15):1123-1134.
* Racial Disparities in Diabetes Care Processes, Outcomes, and Treatment Intensity, MedicalCare, Vol41,No.11,pp1211-1232.
* Changing health in China: Re-evaluating the epidemiological transition model,Health Policy67(2004)329-343.
* Tooth retention as an Indicator of Quality Dental Care: Development of Risk Adjustment Model, Medical Care,vol.41,No.8,pp937-949.
* Racial Variations in Dental Procedures :The Case of Root Canal Therapy versus Tooth Extraction, Medical Care,vol41,No.11,pp1256-1261.
* The changing public/private mix in dentistry in the UK-a supply -side perspective, Health Economics,12:309-321(2003).
* The effects of payment method on clinical Decision-making,Health Medical Care,Vol.42,No3,2004.
* National health insurance and the antenatal care use: a case in Taiwan,Health Policy,64(2003)99-112.
* Taiwan's New National Health Insurance Program: Genesis and Experience So Far, Health Affairs, Vol.22,No.3.
* Provider Perceptions of pharmacy Management -Lesson From the Military Health System, Medical Care,Vol.42, No.4,April 2004.
* A Pharmaeconomic Review of its use in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Acute Coronary Syndromes, PhamacoEconomics2003:21(12):885-912.
* Do Well-Publicized Risk-Adjusted Ourcomes reports Affect Hospital Volume?, Medical Care,Vol42,No.4,April 2004.
* Nurse staffing and mortality for medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction, Medical Care, Vol42,No.1,2004.
* Does publicizing Hospital performance Stimulate Quality Improvement Efforts?-Results from a study in Wisconsin suggest that making performance information public stimulates quality improvement, HEALTH AFFAIRS,vol22,No.2.
* Are Critical Pathways Effective for Reducing postoperative Length of Stay?, MedicalCare,vol41,No.5,pp637-648.
* Medical Liability and patient safety, Health Affairs,Vol.22,No.4,2003.
* How can we improve the quality of Health care in Japan?: Learning from JCQHC Hospital Accreditation, Health Policy 66(2003)29-49.
* Design and analysis of unit cost estimations studies: How many hospital diagnoses? How many countries?, Health Economics, 12:517-527(2003).
* Financing and planning of public and private not-for-profit hospitals in the European Union, Health Policy67(2004)281-291.
* The Cost Effectiveness of Apligraf? Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers,Phamaco Economics 2003:21(16):1171-1183.
* Analysis of hospital charges for ischemic stroke in Fukuoka,Japan, Health Policy,66(2003)239-246.
* Nuse Staffing :A structural proxy for hospital Quality?,Medicalcare,vol42,no1,2004.
* Universal health coverage in Thailand: ideas for reform and policy struggling,HealthPolicy,68(2004)17-30.
* The nonprofit sector's $100 Billion opportunity, Harvard Business Review May2003.
* Increased spending on Health care: How much can the united states afford?, Health Affairs, vol22,No.4,2003.
* A Study of Influenza and Influenza-Related Complications among Children in a large US Health Insurance Plan Database, Phamacoeconomics;200321(4):273-283.
* Cost Evaluation of Basiliximab Treatment for Renal Transplant Patients in Japan, Phamacoeconomics:2003;21(11).
* Trends in Medication Use and functioning before retirement age:Are the linked?, Health Affairs Vol.22,No.4,2003.
* Practical Aspects of Designing and Conducting Phamacoeconomic Studies in Japan,Phamacoeconomics,2003:21)13):913-925.
* European Healthcare Policies for Controlling Drug Expenditure, Phamacoeconomics:2003:21(2):89-103.
* Medicare Drug Coverage and Moral Hazard, Health Affairs, Vol23,No.1,2004.
* Medical student indebtedness and the propensity to enter academic medicine, Health Economics,12:101-112(2003).
* Health care Policy: Qualitative evidence and health technology assessment,Health policy,65(2003)217-226.
* Use of deceptive tactics in physician practices: are there differences between international and US medical graduates?,Health Policy67(2004)257-264.
* Physician Performance Assessment -Nonquivalence of primary Care Measures, MedicalCare,vol41,No.9,pp1034-1047.
* A Cost-minimisation study of alternative discharge policies after hip fracture repair,Health Economics,12:87-100(2003).
* Are the young Becoming more disabled?- Rates of disability appear to be on the rise among people ages eighteen to fifty-nine, fueled by a growing obesity epidemic, Health Affair,vol23mNo.1,2004.
* Needs for further improvement: risk adjustment in the German health insurance system,Health Policy65(2003)21-35.
* Cigarette demand: a meta-analysis of elasticities,Healthcare Economics,12:821-835(2003).
* Risk Adjusted premium subsides and risk sharing: Key elements of the competitive sickness fund market in the Netherlands, Health Policy65(2003)49-62.
* The Prospects for Reform of the Japanese Healthcare System, Phamacoeconomics2002:20 suppl.:55-66.lOpinions on changes in the Romanian health care system from people's point of view: a descriptive study,Healt Policy66(2003)123-134.
* Medicare upcoding and hospital ownership, journal of Health Economis,23(2004)369-389.
* Towards a new welfare states: the social sustainability principle and health care strategies, Health policy, 65(2003)201-215.
* The impact of ageing on hospital care and long-term care-the example of Germany, Health Policy 67(2004)57-74.
* Have DRG-based prospective Payment systems influenced the number of secondary diagnoses in health care administrative data?, Health Polivy65(2003)101-107.
* Estimating mean hospital cost as a function of Length of stay and patient characteristics, Health Care Economics,12:935-347(2003).
* Clinical Risk Group(CRGs)-A Classification system for risk-adjusted capitation-Based payment and health care management,Medical Care,Vol.42,No1,2004.

※Reference: A reading packet which was used in 2003's program
* echnological development and medical productivity: the diffusion of angioplasty in New York state, Journal of Health Economics, 22(2003)187-217.
* Selective referrals in a 'hab and spoke'institutional setting :the case of coronary angioplasty procedures, Health policy, 63(2003)95-107.
* China Cornell - oxford Project http://www.nutrition.cornell.edu/chinaproject/
* Why health equity? , Health Economics 11:659-666(2002).
* Decomposing world health inequality, Journal of Health Economics, 22(2003)271-293.
* 「経済統計が示す日本の階級社会化」(エコノミスト,2003.2.18)
* Forecasting the nursing home population, Medical Care,vol.41,No.1,pp8-20.
* Does insurance coverage for drug therapy Affect Smoking cessation?, Health Affairs, Vol.21,No.6.
* Health economics evaluation in Japan : a case study of one aspect of health technology assessment, Health Policy 63 (2003) 197-204.
* The development of health technology assessment, Health Policy, 63(2003)121-132.
* The effect of financial pressure on the quality of care in hospitals, Journal of Health Economics 22(2003)243-269.
* Competitive spillovers across non-profit and for-profit nursing homes, Journal of Health Economics 22(2003)1-22.
* The Pfizer foundation's community health ventures program : Providing model for community health partnerships, Health Affairs,vol.21, No.6.
* Should we use willingness to pay to elicit community preferences for health care? New evidence from using a 'marginal'approach, Journal of Health Economics 21(2002)971-991.
* Development of a model for care-mix adjustment of Pressure ulcer prevalence rates, Medical Care, Vol.41, No.1, pp45-55.
* Choice of and overall satisfaction with pharmacies among a community-dwelling elderly population, Medical Care, Vol.40,No12,pp1283-1293.
* Enrollee mix, treatment intensity, and cost in competing indemnity and HMO plans, Journal of Health Economics Vol.22, No.1,pp23-45.
* No Toyotas in health care: Why medical care has not evolved to meet patients' needs, Health Affairs, Vol.20, No.6.
* Arm yourself for the coming battle over〜Social Security, Harvard Business Review, vol.80,No.11.
* Israelis evaluate their health care system before and after the introduction of the national health insurance law, Health Policy 63(2003)279-287.
* How to identify your enemies before they destroy you, Harvard Business Review, vol.80,No.11.
* 「人口股関節置換術に対するクリニカルパスの改良とその結果」(日本クリニカルパス学会誌第4巻2号2002年)
* Disparity in health Services and outcomes for persons with hip fracture and lower extremity joint replacement, Medical Care, Vol.41,No2,pp232-241.
* Prejudice, clinical uncertainty and stereotyping as sources of health disparities, Journal of Health Economics, Vol.22,No.1,pp89-116.
* Do interviews agree with medical record and pharmacy data? , Medical Care, vol.40,No12,pp1270-1282.
* AIDS is your business, Harvard business review, vol.81.No.2, pp81-87.
* Managed competition and consumer price sensitivity in social health insurance, journal of economics 21 (2002)1009-1029.

※Reference : A reading packet which was used in 2001's and 2002's program
Introduction: Applying the Economics Paradigm
Folland et al.,Introduction, chapter 1, page 1-
Folland et al.,Equity,Efficiency and Need,chapter 19,page 431-432 and 435-442.
Aaron,Henry,“Economic Issues in Health Care" in Aaron, Serious and Unstable Condition : Financing America's Health Care,Washington,D.C. : The Brookings Institution 1991,Chapter 2,8-37.
Arrow,Keneth,"Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care",American economic Review, 1963,941-969.(Focus on section ? : special characteristics of the medical care market.)
Fuchs,Victor,"Problems and choices", Who Shall Live?, NY Basic Books,1975,7-29. Background reading :
Committee on Ways and Means, "What we Spend on Health Care" in Medicare and Health Care Chart Book, May 1999.
Igleart,John K . "The American Health Care System - Expenditures"New England Journal of Medicine, 7 January 1999,340(1),70-76. Folland,Allen Goodman and Miron Stano, The Economics of Health Care, Third dition. Prentice Hall,2001

The Production of Health I : Health Production Functions, Lifestyle Choices
Folland et al.,The Production of Health, Chapter 5,page 97-
Folland et al.,The Health Economics of Bads, Chapter 25,page571- (see pages 36-37 for a review of elasticities)
Manning,Willard G.,Emmett B.Keeler,Joseph P.Newhouse,Elizabeth M.Sloss and Jeffrey Wasserman, "The Taxes of Sin : Do Smokers and Drinkers Pay Their Way?"Journal of the American Medical Association

The production of health?: The Cost and Effectiveness of Health Care
Folland et al.,Cost-Benefit Analysis and Other Tools of Economics Evalution,Chapter 4,page74-
Cutler,David,"Public Policy for Health Care",in Alan Auerbach,ed.,Fiscal Policy : Lessons from Economic Research, Cambridge,MA : MIT Press,1997,Chapter 5, 159-198. Also,NBER working paper no.w5591.
Glied,Sherry,"Can We Afford More Health Care?"in Glied,Chronic Condition : Why Health Reform Fils,Cambridge and London : Harvard University Press,1997,Chapter 4,pp .86-121.
Leutwyler ,Kristin,"The Price of Prevention"Scientific American 1995,124-129.
Weisbrod,Burton,"The Health Care Quadrilemma : An Easy on Technological Change,Insurance,Quality of Care,and Cost Containment" Journal of Economic Literature,June 1991,29,523-552.Background reading :
New York Times,"The Medical Industry : Hope for Sale",3 October 1999.

Government Intervention in Health Care Markets
Folland et al.,Government Intervention in Health Care Markets,Chapter 20,pages 445-459.
Folland et al.,Social Insurance,Chapter 22,page 502-
Fuchs,Victor,"National Health Insurance Revisited"in Fuchs,The Future of Health Policy,Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press,1993, Chapter 14,204-217.
Frank,Richard and David Salkever, "Nonprofit Organizations in the health sector",Journal of Economic Perspectives,1994,8(4),129-144. Background reading :
Iglehart,John K."The American Health Care System : Medicare", New England Journal of Medicine,28 January 1999,340(4),317-332.

Comparative Health Care Systems
Iglehart,John K."The American Health Care System : Medicaid",New England Journal of Medicine,4 February 1999,340(5),403-408.
Folland et al., Comparative Health Care Systems,Chapter 23,page 528-
Anderson, Gerard,Jeremy Hurst,Peter Sotir Hussey and Melissa Jee-Hughes, "Health Spending and Outsomes : Trends in OECD Countries,1960-1998",Health Affairs,2000,19(3), 150-157.
Fuchs,Victor and James Hahn,"How Does Canada Do It? A Comparison of Expenditure for Physicians' Services in the United States and Canada" New England Journal of Medicine,27 September 1990, 884-890.
The World Health Organization, World Health Report 2000. Especially chapter 5, "Who Pays for Health Systems".
U.S. Social Security Administration,"Social Security Programs Throughout the World 1999" This is description of social security programs(broadly defined) from over 170 countries. Read pages xv-xix of the guide, and any subsequent chapters you find of interest.

The Demand for Health Care
Follamd et al., Consumer Choice and Demand,Chapter 8,page 164-
Manning,Willard Joseph P . Newhouse, Naihua Duan, Emmett B . Keeler, Arleen Liebowits and M.Susan Marquis,"Health Insurance and the Demand for Medical Care : Evidence from a Randomized

The Economics of Health Insurance
Folland et al., Demand and Supply of Health Insurance,Chapter 7,pages 141-144 and 150-161.
Folland et al., Asymmetric Information and Agency, Chapter 9,pages 187-195.

Paying for Health Insurance and Health Care
Folland et al., The Organization of Health Insurance Markets, Chapter 11,pages 230-244.
Folland et al., Health System Reform, Chapter 24,pages 558-563.
Krueger,Alan B .and Uwe E . Reinhardt,"The Economics of Employer Versus Individual Medicate",Health Affairs 1994,spring (?), 34-53.
Pauly,Mark,Health Benefits at Work : An Econimics of Political Analysis of Employment-Based Health Insurance,Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press,1997, Chapter 1,1-13.
Summers,Lawrence,"Some Simple Economics of Mandated Benefits"American Economic Review,May 1989, 79(2), 177-183. http://www.jstor.org Background reading :
Holahan, John and Johnny Kim "Why Does The Number Of Uninsured Americans Continue To Grow?" Health Affairs,2000,19(4),188-196

Payment Systems and Cost Control
Folland et al., Imperfect Information : Supplier Induced Demand and Small Area Variations, Chapter 10,page 204-
Folland et al., Managed Care, Chapter 12,pages 248-261.
Folland et al., Government Regulation- Principal Regulatory Mechanism, Chapter 21,pages 470-789.
Committee on Ways and Means,1998 Green Book."Section2 : Medicare"101-153,"Appendix D : Medicare Reimbursement to Hospitals" 1117-1130 and "Appendix E : Medicare Reimbursement to Physicians"1195-1203 http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/wm001.html Select “1998 Green Book" and enter search term"Medicare".
Ellis,R.and T. McGuire, "Supply-side and Demand-side Cost Sharing in Health Care"Journal of Economic Perspectives,Fall 1993,7(4), 135-151. Background reading : http://www.jstor.org
The New York Times, "Health Care - Recent Coverage",2000. Especially,"Estimate of Ouster by HMO's IS Raised "by Robert Pear,25 July 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/library/politics/index-healthcare.html Especially, "Estimate of Ousters by HMO's Is Raised"by Robert Pear,25 July 2000.

Physicians and Other Health Care Sector Workers
Folland et al., Labor Markets and Professional Traning, Chapter 15,pages 323-
Folland et al., The Traning and practice of Physicians ,Chapter 16,page 347-
Gaynor,Martin,"Issues in the Indusrial Organization of the Market for Phvsician Services" ,Journal of Economics and, Management Strategy1994,3, 211-255.
Kessler,Daniel and Mark McClellan,"Do Doctors Practice Defensive Medicine?"Quarterly Journal Of Economics,May 1996,111(2), 353-390.
Simon,Carol J., William D .White,Sandy Gamliel, and Philip R. Kletke,"The Provision of Primary Care : Does Managed Care Make A Difference?"Health Affairs, November/December 1997, 89-98.

Hospitals and Other Institutions
Folland et al., Hospitals and Long-Term Care, Chapter 18,page 399-
Connor,Robert A., Roger D.Feldman, Bryan E .Dowd, and Tiffany A . Radcliff,"Which Types of Hospital Mergers Save Consumers Money?" Health Affairs, 1997,16(6),62-74
Dranove,David and William D. White, "Recent Theory and Evidence on Competition in Hospital Markets" Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Spring 1994, 3, 169-209.
Gaynor, M .and D . Haas-Wilson, "Change , Consolidation, and Competition in Health Care Markets", Journal of Economic Perspectives, Winter 1999, 13(1), 141-164.
Reinhardt,Uwe(1996), "Spending more through cost control : Our obsessive quest to gut the hospital", Health Affairs ,1996, 15(2), 145-154.
Sloan,Frank A., "Commercialism in Nonprofit Hospitals"Journal of Policy analysis and Management, 1998, 17(2), 234-252. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0276-8739/

Evaluating Managed Care
Folland et al.,Managed Care , Chapter 12, pages 261-278.
Cutler,David and Louise Sheiner , "Managed care and the growth of medical expendintures" in Alan M .Garber , ed .,Frontiers in Health Policy Research , Volume 1, Cambridge , MA : MIT Press,1998. Also, NBER working paper no. w6140. http://papers.nber.org/papers/w6140/
Miller, Robert and Harold Luft, "Managed Care Plane Performance Since 1980 : A Literature Analysis," Journal of the American Medical Association,18May 1994, 271(19),1512-1519.
Miller, Robert H. and Harold S. Luft, "Does Managed Care Lead to Better or Worse Quality of Care ?" Health Affairs, September/October 1997,7-25.
Siu,Albert L., Arleen Leibowitz, Robert H. Brook,Nancy S.Goldman, Nicole Lurie and Joseph P.Newhouse, "Use of the Hospital in a Randomized Trial of Prepaid Care" Journal of the American Medical Association ,1998,259,1343-1346.

Pharmaceuticals and Final Examination
Folland et al., The Pharmaceutical Industry, Chapter 26,page 583-
Patricia Danzon, "Marking sense of drug prices", Regulation 2000,23(1),56-63.
Sorensen, Alan T., "Equilibrium Price Dispersion in Retail Markets for Prescription Drugs", Journal of Political Economy,2000,108(4),833-850. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ The New York Times, "Medicine Merchants",2000.
Especially,"How Companies Stall Generics and Keep Themselves Healthy "and" In a Drug's Journey to Market, Discovery Is Just the First of Many Steps",by Shery 1 Gay Stolberg and Jeff Gerth ,23 July 2000.


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